The Power Of Knowledge
The Power Of Knowledge
The Power Of Knowledge
The Power Of Knowledge
The Power Of Knowledge
ROAMING NETWORKS TAKES PART IN TECHNOBANK 2016
The 16th annual international conference and exhibition TECHNOBANK 2016 was held on May 11th and 12th in the Crowne Plaza Hotel in Belgrade.
Roaming Solutions Group representatives from Roaming Networks and Enetel Solutions attended the conference that featured presentations where all participants were introduced to the latest technological developments in IT and IT-related industries applied primarily in the banking sector.
Integral parts of the TECHNOBANK conference were round tables and panel discussions, where renowned experts had the chance to talk over current hot topics: Digital Banking, Mobile wallets, Digital Transformation, Data Centers…
Technobank is the leading event in the West Balkans region that puts focus on the latest topics in the global banking industry.
ROAMING NETWORKS AT CEBIT 2016
In March 2016 CeBIT stood at the epicenter of the digital world once again. More than 3000 companies from as many as 70 countries exhibited at the Fair. Roaming Networks representatives visited the event and got the latest info on digital transformation, Internet of Things and IT security.
The focal point of CeBIT 2016 was the topic of digitalization that is nowadays present in all branches of industry, empowering innovation in business and social settings.
The fair featured the latest developments and solutions in eight domains: Digital Business Solutions, Enterprise Content Management (ECM), Input/Output Solutions, Internet of Things, Business Process Applications, Business Security, Research & Innovation, Data Center and Communication & Networks.
Besides the exhibition, the city of Hannover hosted one of the biggest ICT conference events called “CeBIT Global Conferences”, with the variety of presentations and forums taking place to deal with all key issues that digital economy is now facing.
Our representatives had the chance to meet up with the company partners exhibiting at the Fair, and used the time in Germany to go to the headquarters of one of the partners – “Keymile”.
In the sea of appealing innovative feature,s the humanoid robot named “Pepper“ stood out, grabbing visitors’ attention with the ability to speak 20 languages and perceive emotions of his interlocutors based on the facial expressions.
ROAMING NETWORKS AT “MOBILE WORLD CONGRESS 2016”
The 2016 edition of the global congress on mobile technology held in Barcelona has amassed the record number of visitors and exhibitors.
During the five day event, more than 100.000 people from all over the world had an opportunity to see as many as 2.000 exhibitors and listen to 200 lectures showcasing and discussing how mobile communications and mass connectivity are rapidly transforming our everyday private and business life.
The conference highlighted the latest developments in 5G access networks, NFV, SDN, terminal equipment, mobile applications, virtual reality, e-commerce, multimedia communications, Internet of Things services, innovations in the development of OTT applications, safety, etc.
The conference was also an occasion for us to catch up with a number of our business partners and friends and talk about future cooperation.
NEW PARTNERSHIPS – VMWARE AND VEEAM
Roaming Networks continues to expand its business outside Serbian borders, all the while investing into its future by establishing new partnerships.
At the beginning of 2016 Roaming Networks formed professional partnership status with companies Vmware and Veeam and thus complemented its IT portfolio for traditional and virtual IT infrastructure.
Vmware provides virtualization software for server, desktop, storage and networks, as well as IT solutions for cloud design, automatization and managing.
Veeam offers modern optimized solutions for virtual data backup, together with monitoring and alerting tools in the virtual environment.
ROAMING NETWORKS AT CORIANT
PARTNERPLUS PROGRAMME CONFERENCE
This year as well, representatives of the Business Development section of our company attended an annual global conference hosted by Coriant in Munich at the end of January.
Main goals of the conference have been to achieve synergy of partner companies gathered at the event and agree on the plans and visions for business operations this year, building up trust into the reliability of the entire Coriant product portfolio along the way.
Presentations featured enhanced solutions for end users together with the business strategy for 2016. Positive experiences were successfully shared and productive discussions gave rise to new ideas.
Several new solutions were showcased as well, such as DCI (Data Center Interconnect) that will serve as basis for further business expansion.
ROAMING NETWORKS ATTENDS ST SAVA’S BALL IN VIENNA
Representatives of our company in Austria were this year as well among the guests of the St Sava’s Ball held for the nineteenth time in Vienna on January 22nd.
The beautiful setting of the Parkhotel Schönbrunn has been the background for the event that gathered numerous representatives of the diplomatic corps of both Serbia and Austria, various artists, together with Serbian entrepreneurs doing business in Austria.
Having in mind that our company has been present in the Austrian market for two years now, working on projects of telco operators T-Mobile, Hutchison H3A and A1 Telekom as partners of SPL Tele, Roaming Networks representatives were among the attendees of this year’s Ball. This year we are moving on with the realization of the projects in progress, being particularly proud of the modernization project of A1 Telekom network.
St Sava’s Ball is an event of major importance held in the capital of Austria as it represents the Serbian diaspora in the best way possible, speaking volumes of the Serbian tradition, our multicultural nature and hospitality.
We are looking forward to the St Sava’s Ball in the year to come.
ROAMING NETWORKS - “JOB DAY” IN VIENNA
Roaming Networks moves on with its successful business operations in Austria. Planned projects are to be executed during the entire year all over this EU country, which is why we have decided to add new members to our team.
In cooperation with AMS, our company has organized an event named “Job Day” as a unique opportunity to showcase the company and its business activities to all interested attendees.
The presentation’s goal was to look for suitable candidates and offer them employment in our branch in Austria, providing the same training method we utilize in Serbia. As many as 50 people attended the event, and around 40 of them showed interest to work for us.
Our company has been present in the Austrian market for two years now, working on projects of telco operators T-Mobile, Hutchison H3A and A1 Telekom as partners of SPL Tele.
ROAMING NETWORKS ATTENDS “HUAWEI EUROPEAN BUSINESS DRIVEN DATA CENTER CONGRESS”
This two-day event has been rather dynamic and busy. Over 200 IT experts from all over Europe gathered to share the latest information related to the know-how on “Multi-Tenant Data Center” (MTDC).
This two-day event has been rather dynamic and busy. Over 200 IT experts from all over Europe gathered to share the latest information related to the know-how on “Multi-Tenant Data Center” (MTDC).
Lectures and presentations held by leading Huawei experts served as an interactive platform to exchange knowledge and experiences regarding trends, strategies and future actions related to MTDC operations. The Congress was also the stage for speeches given by representatives of several global companies such as Intel, Gartner, Commvault and OpenStack.
On that note, as we look back on the past year, Roaming Networks management besides expanding its business onto foreign markets expanded its field of operation as well by forming a team of experts at the beginning of July 2015, exclusively tasked with the planning, construction and maintenance of IT infrastructure and Data Centers.
Through cooperation with global partners, our company has already launched projects of IT infrastructure modernization for its current clients, working on existing Data Centers or constructing new ones.
DAY AT ROAMING NETWORKS
ROAMING NETWORKS ATTENDS TELFOR 2015
ROAMING NETWORKS WITH CORIANT IN
LISBON AND MUNICH
Roaming Networks representatives attended the 23rd International Telecommunications Forum Telfor held in Sava Center.
The central topic of this year’s forum has been the development of domestic and global IT and telecommunications industry.
In a three-day event, important subjects were being discussed during various sections, such as policy, regulatory aspects and services in communications, telecommunications networks, radio communications, signal processing, applied electronics, applied electromagnetic, multimedia, software tools and applications.
Our colleagues attended presentations of results in scientific and research work, whereas special interest was paid to the presentations that featured practical experience on specific topics.
For Roaming Networks representatives and their partners from Coriant October has been an eventful month. We have visited Coriant’s workshops and a factory in Lisbon, shared experiences with tech experts and spent time with clients in a seminar held in Munich.
Within its ParnerPlus Programme, Coriant has invited our company to the capital of Portugal to take part in “Coriant Sales Partner Enablement” workshops.
Our colleagues from Business Development and Planning, Construction and Maintenance of Access and Transmission Systems had an opportunity to exchange experiences with experts in the field of transmission networks and colleagues from other companies that are also part of Coriant PartnerPlus Programme.
The visit featured a tour of the factory within Coriant’s biggest R&D center and a presentation of the latest SDH and DWDM solutions and products.
At the beginning of October, Roaming Network representatives and their colleagues from EMS went to Munich to attend seminars on the latest technologies and take a tour of Coriant’s laboratories.
Roaming Networks has been Coriant’s Value Added Reseller Partner since 2011 and now stands out as the leading reseller partner for the Balkan region in the field of access and transmission systems.
ROAMING NETWORKS AT CEE & NORDIC HUAWEI PARTNER ENTERPRISE CONGRESS
Huawei has invited several hundreds of its partners, including Roaming Networks, to a two-day conference in Prague so as to present what is new when it comes to the latest IT trends offered by this Chinese tech giant.
The congress has been an excellent opportunity for our company and other enterprise partners of this brand to attend presentations and become familiar with the latest technologies and meet Huawei’s tech experts.
Featured topics included Huawei Enterprise solutions and presentations of the latest ICT trends, Agile Networks and breakthroughs in the field of high-end storage.
All attendees had a chance to share useful information related to strategies, development and analysis of the markets in Central and Eastern Europe and the Nordic region.
The conference held under the slogan “The Way to Future” brought a discussion on possibilities for cooperation and on forming a united front towards clients made possible by partnership with Huawei and its solutions that make this brand an outstanding one.
Roaming Networks representatives attended at the end of September the international conference “Regulatory actions in the field of electronic communications”, held within INFOFEST festival 2015 in Montenegro.
The invitation was extended by the executive director of the Agency for Electronic Communications and Postal Services of Montenegro, providing opportunity to our colleagues from Business Development to share experiences and listen to the presentations of business operations of both regional and EU operators and talks given by representatives of regulatory agencies for telecommunications from the region.
Representatives of European regulatory agencies, relevant ministries and electronic communication operators and experts from international organizations and institutions in charge of regulatory affairs and development policies for electronic communications participated in a dialogue on strategies and policies regarding the availability of broadband access in the region.
The conference “Regulatory actions in the field of electronic communications” was organized by the Agency for Electronic Communications and Postal Services of Montenegro and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).
ROAMING NETWORKS AT INFOFEST 2015
ROAMING NETWORKS AT HUAWEI CLOUD COMPUTING CONGRESS IN SHANGHAI
Visit to the Huawei Cloud Congress was an occasion for the Roaming Networks representative to exchange experiences with colleagues and partners from the field and gain fresh insight into recent innovations in IT practices and Data Centre solutions.
Huawei Cloud Congress held in Shanghai succeeded this year as well in engaging more than 10.000 technical experts to share their experiences and become familiar with the latest inventions and solutions in the domain of information technologies.
Our company representative attended the unveiling of the next generation of data centers and converged storage systems
The emphasis has been on cloud solutions in the fields covering Telco business, energy, transport and public sectors.
At the beginning of July 2015, Roaming Networks launched an independent line of business – IT infrastructure and Data Centers. The team tasked with planning, construction and maintenance of IT infrastructure and Data Centers has ever since been busy working on projects in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina.
ROAMING NETWORKS STARTS FOURTH LINE OF BUSINESS:
PLANNING, CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE OF IT INFRASTRUCTURE AND DATA CENTERS
AUGUST 25 2015
Roaming Networks management, along with the business expansion into foreign markets, has decided to form the team of experts at the beginning of July, exclusively tasked with the planning, construction and maintenance of IT infrastructure and Data Centers.
Through cooperation with our global partners, Roaming Networks has already launched projects of IT infrastructure modernization for its current clients, working on existing Data Centers or constructing new ones, thus contributing to faster implementation of new services and their increased performances.
“The exponential development of content for mobile devices and cloud solutions that result in rapid growth of data traffic, push big companies to act in a more rational manner towards their end users. Investing in modern ICT solutions today will improve your competitiveness in the market tomorrow. That is why we decided to form an entirely new section within Roaming Networks to cover IT infrastructure and Data Centers, so as to offer our clients ‘one stop shop’ full support that they now need ,” said Roaming Network’s GM Rade Vujović.
The team tasked with planning, construction and maintenance of IT infrastructure and Data Centers is soon to complete works on projects in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and our news section offers the following range of services:
ROAMING NETWORKS AT
HUAWEI CLOUD CONGRESS IN MUNICH
JUNE 26 2015
Roaming Networks, as one of the top 10 Huawei partners in the Enterprise sector for the South-East Europe, attended the Huawei Cloud Congress (HCC) in Munich, Germany. Our company representatives got to see the latest Cloud solutions and during this three-day event went to numerous lectures in cloud computing technology.
In addition to the various speeches and presentations, the congress featured booth exhibits showcasing cloud computing solutions including next generation data centres and converged storage systems.
Roaming Networks representatives got a chance to listen to the speeches given by leading Huawei managers sharing the latest developments in this field, such as Lu Yong, President for South East Europe, Zheng Yelai, IT Director and Yang Tao, Business Development Director.
A message sent out at the HC Congress to all the companies looking to simplify and expedite their business operations is reflected in Huawei’s slogan for this year: “Make it simple, make business agile”. Roaming Networks, being Elite Club Partner of Huawei, has an opportunity to help such companies reach that goal in a professional and primarily expert manner.
ROAMING NETWORKS VISITS HUAWEI’S STORAGE SOLUTIONS DEVELOPMENT CENTER IN CHINA
MAY 21 2015
Roaming Networks representatives are on a five-day visit to China, at the invitation of their partners in Huawei, touring the company’s largest storage solutions development and testing center in the city of Chengdu and the main data center seated in Shenzhen.
Our colleagues gladly accepted the invitation to pay a visit to their Huawei partners and tour both IT centers.
General Manager Mr. Rade Vujović points out the strategic partnership established with Huawei, being very pleased with the opportunity offered to Roaming Networks.
- The Chinese city of Chengdu is home to Huawei’s largest center for the development of storage solutions and the testing of their interoperability with products by other global companies in the field of networking, servers, virtualization, operating systems and applications. With more than 9000 engineers, it is one of Huawei’s biggest research and development centers.
It is noteworthy that this year Roaming Networks made the top 10 of Huawei partners in the Enterprise sector for the South-East European region and Scandinavian countries, encompassing 27 countries of the old continent. >> LINK
ENGINEER OF THE FUTURE PROGRAMME REACHES 100 ATTENDEES
APRIL 24 2015
Roaming Network’s professional education programme with practical and theoretical trainings has been gaining in popularity among fresh graduates and young engineers. The team of apprentices has welcomed its 100th member. Out of all participants completing the Engineer of the Future Programme, 57 have found employment. The Programme at this moment has 30 attendees.
Last year Roaming Networks launched the Engineer of the Future Programme, offering two month professional education with theoretical and practical trainings for fresh graduate engineers. As many as 100 young people have so far jumped at this exceptional opportunity.
General Manager Mr. Rade Vujović says the Engineer of the Future” programme provides young engineers with an excellent opportunity to seek professional development and employment right after graduation.
Each and every candidate who successfully passes our education programme is offered a job in our company. Up to now, 57 such engineers have stayed to work with us, whereas the Programme currently has 30 new attendees. Young engineers we hired have great prospects to become highly skilled, experienced professionals and work in their field of expertise both in country and abroad.
During the professional education programme, participants attend teaching sessions held by professional lecturers within the theoretical part of the training, and work with experienced mentors in the practical segment. They are provided with relevant records and files in order to gain knowledge in specific areas of interest and are given necessary equipment for practical work.
The details of the Programme have so far been presented to students of several faculties in Serbia, such as the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and the Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering at the University of Belgrade, and the Faculty of Electronic Engineering (University of Niš) to name a few. Furthermore, the Programme has reached out to the final year students and graduates of electrical engineering faculties in Banja Luka (Bosnia and Herzegovina) and Podgorica (Montenegro).
ROAMING NETWORKS BECOMES ELITE CLUB PARTNER OF HUAWEI
APRIL 07 2015
After yet another year of successful cooperation, Roaming Networks has entered the top 10 of Huawei partners in the Enterprise sector in 2015 for the South-East European region and Scandinavian countries, encompassing 27 countries of the old continent.
Roaming Networks General Manager Mr. Rade Vujović said on the occasion that the manner in which Huawei acknowledged and honored our company, among 150 other partners, is indeed a major success that creates myriad of opportunities for further business development of our company:
- Our strategic goal is for Roaming Networks to grow into a regional leader in providing services in the field of design and construction of telecommunication networks. Strategic partnerships, such as the one with Huawei, present a very siginicant basis in our endeavors.
Vujović added that our company had already been acknowledged by Huawei in October 2014, having received “The Outstanding Value Added Partner of 2014” award.
Entering the top 10 of Huawei partners is another confirmation of our successful cooperation, Mr. Vujović concluded.
CEBIT 2015: FRESH FOCUS ON B2B
MARCH 16-20 2015
One of the most significant global events in the field of IT and digitization, CeBIT 2015, ended on March 20, setting a new record in the number and variety of companies involved. Roaming Networks representatives did not miss the chance to check out the latest trends in the industry at first hand.
This year’s event, according to its organizers, had “more display area, more visitors, more SME involvement, more internationality, a top-notch conference program, and increased spending volume.“
Having shifted its focus strictly on B2B, CeBIT 2015 managed to underscore its position as the world’s leading event for IT and digitization. More than 3,300 companies from 70 countries exhibited at this year’s event.
China, as the official partner country of CeBIT 2015, had the vast presence at the exhibition grounds, with more than 600 companies showcasing their latest products and solutions, including high-tech firms such as Huawei, ZTE, Alibaba, Xiaomi to name a few.
Digital economy (“d!conomy”) was the keynote theme of this year’s event and comprehensively discussed from various viewpoints by more than 200 top-notch lectures from the business world, politics and science. Organizers provided online coverage of the entire conference programme, gathering as many as 100.000 viewers.
MOBILE WORLD CONGRESS 2015 KICKED OFF IN BARCELONA
MARCH 2 - 5 2015
The world’s largest mobile technology event, GSMA Mobile World Congress 2015, opened its doors from March 2nd to March 5th in Barcelona. Roaming Network managers are among the visitors of this prestigious event that gathers the biggest names of the global mobile industry.
Barcelona is the host of the MWC for the 10th consecutive year. This time round, according to the organizers, the event is set to be the biggest and best of all the previsious editions of the Congress.
The 2015 MWC occupies 100,000 square meters at the Fira Gran Via just outside the city centre, where 2,000 companies exhibit their products to more than 90000 visitors, at an event where connectivity, telecommunications and mobility are among the major topics, and where most of the world's major hardware and software producers launch their flagship products and new solutions.
Under the slogan „The Edge of Innovation“, the 2015 GSMA Mobile World Congress convenes industry leaders, visionaries and innovators to explore the trends that will shape mobile world in the years ahead.
CORIANT DEMONSTRATES LATEST PRODUCTS AND SOLUTIONS
Within its regular interaction with the sales partners network, Coriant organized its first sales partners conference this year on February 3 – 5 in Lisbon, Portugal. Roaming Networks, as one of the sales partners, was among the attendees.
The aim of the event has been to further communicate Coriant solutions, vision and plans to the sales partners in order to boost their confidence in reliability of the Coriant product portfolio.
Alongside covering a wide range of topics of interest to the sales partners, the conference was a unique opportunity to get to know people behind Coriant’s success, including its key executives, gaining a deeper understanding of the company’s strategy.
The event included a demonstration of selected products from the Coriant Dynamic Optical Cloud™ portfolio and a tour of Coriant’s Largest R&D Center seated in Lisbon.
ST SAVA’S BALL IN VIENNA
Roaming Networks representatives attended the traditional St Sava’s Ball held for the eighteenth time in the capital of Austria on January 24th.
The Ball, organized by the Serbian Centre and the Association of Serbian Clubs in Vienna, has gathered hundreds of esteemed guests, including high representatives of the diplomatic corps and governments of Serbia and Austria, together with successful Serbian entrepreneurs doing business in Austria.
In 2014, Roaming Networks expanded its business operations to the Austrian market, establishing partnership with T-Mobile and Hutchison H3A, and engaging as many as 60 engineers from Serbia in projects all over Austria.
The St Sava’s Ball is a unique occasion to celebrate valuable historical and economic relations between Serbia and Vienna and pay tribute to numerous eminent Serbs that lived and worked in Vienna, having in mind that the event itself is homage to the tradition of the Slav Ball established in Vienna by Prince Miloš Obrenović back in the 19th century.
The Ball that also honors the tradition of First Serbian Archbishop St Sava is part of the glamourous Vienna festive ball season, boasting rich cultural content. This year, Serbian actress Anica Dobra hosted the entire program, addressing the audience in both Serbian and German.
ROAMING NETWORKS TAKES PART IN EXPERT CONFERENCES TELFOR AND POSTEL
For the first time since its founding, Roaming Networks presented its scope of work to the broader audience of telecommunications and IT professionals on two occasions in 2014: to those gathered around TELFOR Telecommunications Forum in November 2014 in Belgrade, followed by the POSTEL Telecommunication Conference in December 2014, also in Belgrade.
Both presentations were focused around Roaming Network’s vision as a highly-competent telecommunication company with progressive expansion onto new markets and constant need for hiring new professionals.
“That is why we have decided to share our knowledge with the final-year students through our special two-month professional education program named Engineer of the Future. Our aim is to create a unique learning experience through authentic practical work on our ongoing specialized projects and also provide our participants with necessary theoretical trainings”, said Roaming Network’s GM Rade Vujović.
Underlining the company’s efforts to contribute to the education and training of the upcoming generations of engineers, Mr. Vujović also spoke in favor of Roaming Networks’ constructive working environment adding that the company’s moto “The Power of Knowledge” thus comes as no accident.
Telecommunications Forum TELFOR is organized as an international annual meeting of professionals working in the broad fields of Telecommunications and Information Technologies held in Sava Center conference halls, while POSTEL is shaped as an annual symposium on new technologies in the postal and telecommunications traffic at the Faculty of Transport in Belgrade.
HUAWEI ENTERPRISE CHANNEL CONGRESS 2014
We are proud to announce that Roaming Networks was one of awarded as “The Outstanding Value Added Partner of 2014” for DWDM Network project in EPS.
The Roaming Networks participated on “EBG CEE&NORDIC HUAWEI PARTNER CONGRESS 2014” from 13th to 14th of October in Warsaw, Poland. Organized under slogan “Make Business Agile”, congress offered channel partners the opportunity to learn more about Huawei's Enterprise strategy and channel programs and to share market strategy with peers. Through presentations and demonstrations within demo space, new technologies and products that are expected to bring even greater value to channel partners and their customers was presented. Also, Market Analysis of ICT segment and new technology trends, panel discussions and case studies were available to all congress participants.
The event was good opportunity to award partners that achieved serious results during past year.
CORIANT SALES PARTNER CONFERENCE
The conference was divided into two parts, Coriant and Sales Partner Presentations and Factory tour and demonstrations.
At the beginning there was discussion about vision, market trends and strategy and presentation of totally new marketing strategy. Then, it was presentation of end-2-end product portfolio and Indirect Channel Sales Partner Program. During afternoon session success stories for some projects in energy sector was presented.
Second day was dedicated to factory visit and demonstrations including Coriant’s Dynamic Optical Cloud™, innovative end-to-end and highly programmable infrastructure solution that enables service providers to cost-effectively address a rapidly changing world of dynamic, virtualized, high-bandwidth applications and services. Also, there was live demonstration of Coriant’s Intelligent Optical Control (IOC) solution for a new level of programmability, automation and control of multilayer, multi-vendor transport networks
CORIANT SALES PARTNER ENABLING WORKSHOP
The main goal was to introduce Coriant’s plans to accelerate leadership and innovation in the optical networking market, unleashing a vision for reshaping optical networks for their customers. The Coriant indirect channel strategy is to focus on the vertical market within optical networks globally. With the stronger Coriant company overall strategy the Indirect Channel (IDC) will be further strengthened. Due to this, this workshop is aimed to update partners with the latest organizational, market, operational and product information focusing on Optical Networks products.
During the workshop Coriant presented organizational changes within the company, updated audience about recent market trends, and presented products and services portfolio with special attention to TDM Networks, MPLS-TP Technology and Products, DWDM Portfolio, Tellabs products and TMNS Management System.
CORIANT COMPETENCE DEVELOPMENT WORKSHOP
After carve out of NSN Optical Networks, the conference was organized to introduce new company Coriant and its plans and overall strategy for the Indirect Channel (IDC) partner program with focus on the vertical market within optical networks globally. There was couple of sessions to introduce company organization and partner development program.
Part of conference was dedicated to presentation of product portfolio and marketing strategy, with separate presentations of Bandwidth Management Products, SDH/MSTP Portfolio, OTH Portfolio, DWDM Portfolio, MPLS-TP portfolio and Transnet and Management system.